On April 19, 1861, an angry mob with pro-secessionist intentions attacked US Army troops on the streets of Baltimore, an event known as The Baltimore Riot of 1861, or alternately as The Pratt Street Riot or even the more dramatic Pratt Street Massacre. As fires raged and threatened surrounding buildings, the firefighters would regularly ignore their duties to engage in “battle royals” with one another, using their axes, picks, hooks, and even the street cobblestones and sidewalk bricks. My Maryland! The regiment had left behind much of their equipment, including their marching band. She'll come! The other southern states watched with interest to see what would happen, as the secession of Virginia was important because of the state's industrial value. “Collisions have been frequent between Americans and citizens of Irish and German extraction. Baltimore was a particularly secession-sympathetic city; Abraham Lincoln received only 1,100 of more than 30,000 votes cast for president in 1860. Moments later the 6th was able to march the rest of the way to Camden Station, where they boarded a train to Washington, D.C. It is regarded by historians as the first bloodshed of the American Civil War. That kept the mob at bay temporarily. It was a poem later set to music popular in the South referencing the riots with lines such as "Avenge the patriotic gore / That flecked the streets of Baltimore." however. Suddenly the onlookers unleashed a shower of paving stones and gunfire on the seventh coach, which was carrying Major Watson and 50 troops. On the morning of April 16, 1861, Governor Curtin sent orders to the Ringgold Artillery, one hundred and eight men, to entrain for Harrisburg with their four six-pound field pieces. This email address is being protected from spambots. The remaining passengers were primarily Republicans en route to Philadelphia. On the afternoon of April 18, 1861, Baltimore Mayor George W. Brown dispatched a strong letter of warning to Abraham Lincoln. The American party was pro-Union, unlike the Democrats, who favored states’ rights. Every man tightened his grip on his Springfield, and most avoided looking out the windows, for fear of locking eyes with a pro-Confederate rough. there surges forth a shriek,From hill to hill, from creek to creek,Potomac calls to Chesapeake,Maryland! 2. The Baltimore riot of 1861 (also called the Pratt Street Riot and the Pratt Street Massacre) was a conflict on April 19, 1861, in Baltimore, Maryland, between anti-War Democrats (the largest party in Maryland), as well as Confederate sympathizers, and members of the Massachusetts militia en route to Washington for Federal service. In fact, some of the members, such as the perennially arrested and released John Wesley Gambrill, were accused of starting several fires. For we are the native party… Although it may sound strange today to hear of a firefighting company described as violent, members of the Plug Uglies’ Mount Vernon Hook-and-Ladder Company were just as likely to get into a fight with a rival company, like the New Market Firemen, as they were to actually extinguish a fire. “The regiment will march through Baltimore in column of sections, arms at will,” he announced. We don’t like the Demmy’s, for Fillmore is our boast, And here in old Maryland he is a perfect host, Nor do we love the Argus, with all its boasted eyes, For our motto is “ever on,” root hog or die. you Plug Uglies, now root hog or die. The Library of Congress is providing access to these materials for educational and research purposes and … Our prime purpose in life is to help others, and if we can't help them, the at least we can do is not to hurt them. Election day began much like the previous one had with small fights, growing anger and lots of drinking. Although Marylandhad always leaned toward the south culturally, sympathies in the state were asmuch pro-Union as they were pro-Confederate. The Sun estimated that there were “perhaps some two hundred shots fired during this protracted warfare.” The rioting continued elsewhere—with different results. Tell me somebody I know in Philadelphia, or I will kill you,” still holding the pistol to his face. Baltimore 1861 Dennis Ahern will address this topic at the Boston Public Library Orientation Room, McKim Building 230 Dartmouth Street, Copley Square Wednesday, October 12th at 6:00 p.m. Every year, on April 19th, we are reminded of the minutemen who went to the bridge in Concord in 1775. For we are the native party… But as we are all natives; and proudly we can brag, As true sons of America, we’ll fight beneath its flag, Nor from the field of honor, never will we fly, But as good Plug Uglies we’ll root hog or die. Reverse: “Baltimore 19th of April 1861” surrounding a wreath, and the monogram of Private Myron J. Newton in the center. Baltimore saw the first casualties of the war on April 19, 1861, when Union Soldiers en route from the President Street Station to Camden Yards clashed with a secessionist mob in the Pratt Street riot. During the election, he only carried Maryland. Without hesitation, he gave the order to march. L'émeute de Baltimore, aussi connue sous le nom d'émeute de Pratt Street ou du massacre de Pratt Street, est un évènement qui se produisit le 19 avril 1861 à Baltimore dans le Maryland et qui opposa des partisans des États confédérés à des troupes de l'United States Army.Douze civils et quatre soldats furent tués [1] lors de cette émeute. The House of Delegates followed suit a few days later. One of the assailants accused the passengers of cutting his head, and he threatened to shoot whoever had done it. “The people are exasperated to the highest degree by the passage of troops,” Brown wrote, “and the citizens are universally decided in the opinion that no more should be ordered to come. Lincoln, on the other hand, could have bought 50,000 troops down if he encountered resistance. A mob out for blood clashed with troops en route to Washington, On the afternoon of April 18, 1861, Baltimore Mayor George W. Brown dispatched a strong letter of warning to Abraham Lincoln. After the April 19th rioting, some small skirmishes occurred throughout Baltimore between citizens and police for the next month, but a sense of normalcy returned as the city was cleaned up. It produced the first deaths by hostile action in the … When Mayor Brown ordered the telegraph lines and bridges burned around Baltimore that evening (something outside his jurisdiction and without the Governor's approval, although he tried to pin it on the governor) he showed his true colors. For we are the native party in the west end who try, Go it Plug and Uglies, root ’em out or die. Shortly after the election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860, eight southern states seceded during the next five … Video Baltimore riot of 1861. A Plug Ugly named Carter and Democrat Patrick Dunleavy were both killed. var path = 'hr' + 'ef' + '='; Then they flocked into the car and filled the passageway between the seats till it was impossible for the passengers to escape. Bullets vs. Bricks in Baltimore Governor T. Watkins Ligon, a Democrat, argued in favor of the plan, but Hinks ultimately decided against it, determining that the municipal police would be enough. It was another thread in the seemingly endless tangle of problems facing the embattled U.S. president. I saw at the second story windows of the Watchman engine-house building, in which the polls were held, cut-off muskets or large pistols protruding, and observed smoke issuing from the muzzles, as though they were being fired at me; then I turned toward my brother and endeavored to get to him. HistoryNet.com contains daily features, photo galleries and over 5,000 articles originally published in our various magazines. Allan MacLeod Cormack, physicist, developed the CAT scan. Do not fire into any promiscuous crowds, but select any man whom you may see aiming at you, and be sure you drop him.”. These riots were not during the present unrest in Baltimore; they occurred in April 1861 at the beginning of the Civil War. Baltimore Police Historical Society put the articles found on this site together using research from old newspapers, old books, old photographs, and old artifacts. Martin Wooden was shot in the groin. Everything came to a head in the 1859 elections. Their discontent increased in the days afterward while Lincoln put out a call for volunteers to serve 90 days and end the insurrection; newly formed units were starting to transport themselves south. The mayor and Follansbee met at the base of Pratt Street, and Brown introduced himself. var prefix = 'ma' + 'il' + 'to'; Though Baltimore had been the birthplace of American railroading three decades before, as of 1861 no trains ran through the city between Philadelphia and Washington. Southern cartoonist Adalbert Volck lampooned that humiliating maneuver in an etching, Passage Through Baltimore, depicting a cowardly-looking Lincoln peeking through the side door of a boxcar. One of the militia captains was John Merryman, who was arrested without a writ of habeas corpus one month later, sparking the case of Ex-Parte Merryman. In the previous year's presidential election, Abraham Lincoln had received only 1,100 of more than 30,000 votes cast in the city. The most significant Civil War action in Baltimore was the Pratt Street Riots of Friday, 19 April 1861, which directly caused 17 known deaths, at least 50 injuries and 7 recorded the arrest. While the American Party was being quickly dismantled on the national scale, it managed to retain its hold in Baltimore for several years, where the city’s long history of patriotism at all costs helped secure American sympathies. "Every society gets the kind of criminal it deserves. The election of  1 November 1861, was the last test of strength between Unionists and states rights supporters. Give it to them!” a rioter shouted. In the Twentieth Ward, men broke into the ward house and destroyed the ballots. Unlike at the New Market engine house, the Democrats were the larger force here, sending the Plug Uglies into retreat. Lincoln's opponents … 3. Maryland!Virginia should not call in vain,Maryland!She meets her sisters on the plain-Sic Semper! None of the passengers were armed, at least no weapons were displayed by them. He gave no provocation whatever. Many sympathized passionately with the Southern cause. Ladd; Taylor and Whitney are buried in Lowell, Massachusetts. Retrouvez Baltimore Riot of 1861 et des millions de livres en stock sur Amazon.fr. The reporter noted that during the entire incident, he noticed that “there were three or four uniformed policemen present, who appeared either to fraternize with the rioters or to be afraid of them, for no arrests were made, as could be seen from the cars.”109 Not surprisingly, Seymour and Blair won Maryland, along with seven additional states. Achetez neuf ou d'occasion Amazon.fr - Baltimore Riot of 1861 - Miller, Frederic P., Vandome, Agnes F., McBrewster, John - Livres On April 19, 1861, the first blood of the American Civil War is shed when a secessionist mob in Baltimore attacks Massachusetts troops bound for Washington, D.C. Four soldiers … What is equally true is that every community gets the kind of law enforcement it demands." Sick of the endless, constantly escalating violence, the city’s public began fighting back. March 20, 2011. On the evening of April 20th Hicks also authorized Brown to dispatch the Maryland state militia for the purpose of disabling the railroad bridges into the city - an act he would later deny. Once enough troops had made it to Washington, D.C. to defend the capital, Lincoln resolved to end the problems in Baltimore and restore the rail connection. Marshal Kane stated in his 13 May report to the Police Commissioners, "I heard nothing more of these troops until twenty minutes past eight o'clock on the next Friday morning, April 19th," so the timing of Mayor Brown's excuse that they didn't know until later when & where the troops would come in, seems questionable. My Maryland! In the week leading up to the Baltimore confrontation, matters worsened. Fresh hordes will be down on us to-morrow, the 20th; we will fight them or die. W.E.B. All of the violence meted out thus far was simply a prelude of what was to come. CODE. My Maryland! The growing mob followed the line of cars, now seven long, as it turned onto Pratt Street, the east–west axis of the waterfront. Four soldiers were killed in what has since become known as, "The Pratt Street Riots," "The Baltimore Riots of 1861" or, "The Pratt Street Massacre." He was knocked down twice, and at one time while he was down, I saw two men jump on his body and kick him… In the meantime I drew my pistol and fired into the crowd, which was immediately in front of me, every man of whom seemed to have a pistol in his hand and was firing as rapidly as he could; in this crowd, there were fully from forty to fifty persons. Moreover, it certainly wasn't the end of it; in fact, they were just warming up, for worse things to come. The discharge of the pistol, which blew off a large piece of skin of my forehead and covered my face with blood, caused me to fall. Mayor George William Brown and Maryland Governor Thomas Hicks implored President Lincoln to reroute troops around Baltimore city and through Annapolis to avoid further confrontations. “[That’s] right! Flood. Eleven rioters dropped in that salvo, one of them hit in the throat. 78 years later, it would become Maryland's state song, though there have been efforts to remove it since. The present crisis was no exception. Victor Fleming, film director (The Wizard of Oz, Gone With the Wind). That incident, though minor, reflected the sectional tensions which destined America for civil war. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Unionists continued to rule the Legislature until Federal military control was withdrawn from the State after the war. It was now clear that a long and bloody conflict lay ahead. Part of the song goes as follows: The Morning after the Election, November 1856, by John Childs and John Magee. The age of the Know-Nothing Party had ended the campaign in 1868, Republican candidates Ulysses S. Grant and Schuyler Colfax were matched against Democrats Horatio Seymour and Francis Blair. During the confrontation, several people were killed. Riots" as the mayor made sure they were tagged for posterity, Governor Hicks sends a message that the Rebel militia had taken over Baltimore with the Baltimore politicos leading the way, per this telegram to the Secretary of War dated April 20th, 1861: “What they had endeavored to conceal but what was no longer concealed but made manifest, the rebellious element had the control of things.”. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. 21222, Copyright © 2002 Baltimore City Police History - Ret Det Kenny Driscoll. On top of this the president had to contend with Baltimore, a city the British once branded “a nest of pirates.” Its deeply pro-Southern populace made it un­friendly ground for the Rail Splitter, who had won a paltry 4 percent of its total popular vote in the last election. Over a dozen people were killed, while more than 100 (some estimate 250) were wounded, including women and children. Do you have an idea for a story? Shutt, bowed out in the middle of election day itself. Two days after the Pratt Street riots, Governor Hicks did what partisans had been urging him to do for months. Throw them under the cars!” The other passengers expected every moment to have their turn of cross-examination in the same style as that administered to Mr. Thornton, but before the examiners had time to go through the entire car in this way, the next one arrived, when the mob ran down toward it and beat several of the passengers in the most brutal manner. Then came the sad affair of Friday, the 19, The Baltimore Police Department is disbanded, and rebuilt as a result of Marshal Kane, and Mayor Brown's handling of the Pratt St riots of 1861, Why Marylanders Stayed “Loyal” To The Union, Again. At that moment I made a little motion to turn my head, which caused the shot of the pistol to glance from my head; my hat showed afterward the mark of a bullet which I supposed to have been from that shot. Charles Pendergast, a shipping agent who profited handsomely from transport between Baltimore and South Carolina’s Charleston Harbor, handed dockworkers crowbars and pickaxes with orders to pry the rails from the cobblestones and put the road out of commission. The uprising included crowds filling the streets, burning and looting local businesses, and confronting the police and national guard. George H. Kyle was one of many who submitted testimony to the Maryland House of Delegates about his experiences that day: I went to the polls about half-past 8 A.M. and was within two feet of the window; remained there about five minutes with my brother [Adam B. Kyle]. Several members of the Maryland legislature were arrested, days before a delayed secession vote which historians now consider likely to have failed even without those arrests, and the state was placed under direct federal administration. Their arrival went largely unnoticed by pedestrians, most of whom hadn’t yet realized that the train was carrying Federal troops. We frequently have these things in Spain.” Fisher replied, “In Spain this may mean nothing; in America, it means Civil War.”. When it became apparent that they could travel by horse no further, the troops got out of the cars and marched in formation through the city. Commemorate your occasions, design your own custom patches, pins & coins. One, George William Brown, a 2 nd generation Irish-American, was the mayor, and the other George Proctor Kane, a 1 st generation Irish-American, was the Marshal (Chief) of Police. The most significant action of the Civil War may have occurred in Baltimore on 19 April 1861 during the Pratt Street Riots, which directly caused 17 known deaths and at least 50 injuries and seven recorded arrests, which are now known as the first deaths of the Civil War. Four soldiers {Corporal Sumner Needham of Co I; Privates Luther C. Ladd; Charles Taylor; and Addison Whitney of Co D} and twelve civilians were killed in the riot. At the time, the slave states of Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas had not yet seceded from the U.S. Of the rioters, 11 died—among them a ship’s cabin boy who was hit in the stomach by a stray bullet. Loosely organized as the Know-Nothings. The metallic scraping of ramrods and the train’s rhythmic clatter were the only sounds that filled the coach—that is, until Colonel Jones entered the car and broke the silence with an ominous set of instructions. However, their candidate, Henry Placide, disapproved of their actions and conceded. In 1857, the Washington Star called it “as pestilent and scrofulous a brood of scoundrels as hell itself could vomit from its vilest crater.” Growing out of the Mount Vernon Hook-and-Ladder Company—an all-volunteer firefighting group—the Plug Uglies were nasty, contemptible political gangsters who generally ran with McGonigan’s Rip Raps and often tangled with any Democrats in the city. But beyond these measures, the Legislature was relatively powerless. Thomas Morrison was shot in the leg. Later the military denied having ever fired on the crowd, but these shootings were witnessed by Marshal Frey, Mayor Brown and many others. This email address is being protected from spambots. Sharing Kane's fates were Mayor Brown and Ross Winans, a pro-Southern member of the Legislature and a nominee to Congress. The Baltimore riot of 1861 (also called the Pratt Street Riot and the Pratt Street Massacre) was an incident that took place on April 19, 1861, in Baltimore, Maryland between Confederate sympathizers and members of the Massachusetts militia en route to … Again. Brown took a shot to the chest, while another shot sliced open Rodgers’ neck artery. The Plug Uglies were the central figures in the first election riot in Baltimore in October 1855. Three blocks of this charade was all that Lieutenant Leander Lynde could take. We hope the reader will still form an opinion of their own based on the information written at the time, and not information more recently written that has a so-called "filtered past" that has been twisted and pulled in the direction of a storyteller's personal agenda. On June. According to Private William Gurley of Company K, all accepted their lot “solemnly [and] with unchanged features,” then capped and loaded their .58-caliber Springfields as ordered. I then felt a pistol placed right close to my head so that I felt the cold steel upon my forehead. William Shirer, CBS broadcaster and author (The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich). Library of Congress. The tedious transfer took passengers around the city’s harbor, four blocks north on President Street, a mile west on Pratt and two blocks south on Howard. But two blocks farther on, near the corner of Light Street, rioters hit the 6th’s men again, this time killing teenager Luther Ladd, who just two days before had traded his machinist’s apron for regimental dress. They even rolled in a cannon. Thornton begged them to spare his life, and to mollify them, told them that he was one of Billy McMullen’s crowd in Philadelphia. Come! By the time they had gone just a few blocks, the 6th had attracted an angry crowd, spewing a torrent of epithets punctuated by cheers for “Jeff Davis!”. to thee, I kneel,Maryland!For life or death, for woe or weal,Thy peerless chivalry reveal, And gird thy beauteous limbs with steel,Maryland! Reform challengers and Know-Nothings knocked at one another all day. var addy_textb63a1c3f0281b32dbe16d58aa61be548 = 'Kenny' + '@' + 'BaltimoreCityPoliceHistory' + '.' + 'com';document.getElementById('cloakb63a1c3f0281b32dbe16d58aa61be548').innerHTML += ''+addy_textb63a1c3f0281b32dbe16d58aa61be548+'<\/a>'; At the November election, violence again continued to reign supreme. I believe you are one of the Radicals going to Philadelphia to vote; and if I thought you were, I would kill you right here.” He added, in a threatening manner, “Who do you know in Philadelphia that can vouch for you? There were only a few muskets and no cannon. 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